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Lecture 07: Service life of building structures

the concrete, enabling corrosion of the reinforcement if water is present. • The process can be accelerated if chloride is available, which acts as catalyst. • Corrosion of embedded metals in concrete can be greatly reduced by sufficient concrete cover Concrete structure Minimum cover depth [mm] Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to

Managing Your Woodland Guide

Acknowledgements iii Acknowledgements The Managing Your Woodland was revised by the Small Woodlands Program of BC, an initiative of Forest Renewal BC. The program is designed to encourage owners of private forest lands in BC to manage their properties in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner.


salt scaling resistance of air-entrained concrete incorporating various sources of Class C, and a Class F fly ash. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE The major aim of this work was to evaluate salt scaling resistance of concrete made with Class C and Class F fly ash. The properties measured were compressive strength and salt scaling resistance with


Alam, Naveed, Nadjai, Ali, Ali, Faris and Nadjai, Walid (2018) Structural response of unprotected and protected slim floors in fire. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 142

(PDF) Automatic categorization of chloride migration into

Automatic categorization of chloride migration into concrete modified with CFBC ash Article (PDF Available) in Computers and Concrete 9(5) · May 2012 with 68 Reads How we measure 'reads'

2010 Abstract Booklet Complete.9!28!10

This paper describes the experimental approach, data analysis and assessment of the potential for ilmenite as a carrier in full-scale systems. 7-2 Application of Inorganic Remains Originating from Water Purification and Sewage Sludge Ashes in Chemical Looping Combustion Process Ewelina Ksepko, Grzegorz abojko, Marek Sciazko, Institute for ...

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Condition Assessment of Structures

related to the compressive strength of the concrete. Pull out tests are used to: • Determine in-situ compressive strength of the concrete • Ascertain the strength of concrete for carrying out post tensioning operations. • Determine the time of removal of forms and shores based on actual in-situ strength of the structure.

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Concrete Defects – Causes and Remedies

Scaling - Causes • The use of non-air-entrained concrete or too little entrained air. • Application of excessive amounts of calcium or sodium chloride deicing salts on concrete with inadequate strength, air entrainment, or curing. • Any finishing operation while bleed water is on the surface. Consequently, overworking the surface will result

The frost resistance versus air voids parameters of

The lack of frost durability was partially attributed to higher L values of VMA concrete that varied between 120 lm and 420 lm compared with 250 lm for non-VMA concrete. VMA mixtures were reported to have greater capillary Research result indicates that the type of AFA is more important for decrease of compressive strength after freeze–thaw ...

Frost salt scaling resistance of concrete containing CFBC fly

Oct 11, 2008 · The possibility for using coal combustion by-products in concrete exposed to frost-salt aggression was investigated. The research was aimed to assess an influence addition of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ash on frost-salt scaling of air-entrained concrete. For evaluation of the resistance of concrete to frost salt scaling the test called “depth sensing indentation” (DSI ...

Durability and water absorption properties of surface treated

Durability of concrete can be improved by applying surface treatments. Pore-lining treatments prevent or delay the ingress of water-borne salts while allowing vapour transfer across the concrete surface. The most common pore-liners are silanes and siloxanes; both reported to give good results. One area of concern, however, is variability in effectiveness of the treatment. This variability may ...

Risk of concrete scaling during freeze/thaw cycles

Risk of concrete scaling during freeze/thaw cycles in presence of de-icing salt 1. Introduction There is a risk of scaling degradation for concrete that is subjected to freeze/thaw cycles in the presence of de-icing salts (NaCL, CaCl2). However, scaling is also sometimes observed in concrete that is subjected to freezing and thawing

clean coal in japan

(CFBC) technologies were introduced into Japan from abroad, beginning around 1986. Photo 1 CFBC appearance 5. Progress and development results CFBC technology was introduced from abroad and used in coal-Outstanding fired boilers. It is used by power producers, iron makers, paper investigation of and efforts to reduce the initial costs and to ...

Materials | Free Full-Text | The Influence of Fluidized

Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka analyzed the influence of CFBC fly ash on the chloride and scaling resistance of concrete. She showed that the cement replacement by 15% and 30% CFBC fly ash provided higher chloride resistance, but only replacement by 15% CFBC fly …

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Durability of steam‐cured concrete with slag under the

May 19, 2016 · In this study, the durability characteristics of steam‐cured concrete containing slag exposed to the impact of concrete de‐icing chemicals and freeze‐thaw cycles were investigated with the aim of improving the quality of precast concrete products. Scaling, chloride ion penetration, pull‐off strength and the relative dynamic modulus of ...

Effect of finishing practices on surface structure and

Assessment of concrete bleeding duration is of interest to field engineers and future work may include conducting the proposed testing method in different weather conditions. In addition, more research is required to investigate the effect of slag replacement on salt scaling resistance of concrete.

Durability - Introduction

Durability of hydraulic-cement concrete is defined as its ability to resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion, or any other process of deterioration (ACI). Durable concrete will retain its original form, quality, and serviceability when exposed to its environment. Concrete is an inherently durable material.

Strength and Stiffness of Stabilized Alluvial Silt under

The Yellow River alluvial silt was stabilized into pavement base materials for cold regions. The stabilizing additives were cement, fly ash, and lime, which were included in a range of combinations and dosages when mixed with the silt. Freeze-thaw cyclic impacts were conducted on the treated samples to assess materials performance of withstanding the frost actions. The tests were …

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Frost salt scaling resistance of concrete containing CFBC fly ash

plants in Poland, on the frost salt scaling resistance of concrete. Experimental tests were performed on several concrete mixes designed with substitution of a part of cement by CFBC fly ash. 2 Experimental 2.1 Materials and specimens Ordinary Portland cement CEM I 32.5 R (the chemical composition is given in Table 1), crushed

Kinetic Study of Belite Formation in Cement Raw Meals Used

Calcium looping technology could be one of the most efficient ways to drastically reduce the carbon footprint of cement manufacture since CaCO3 is a major component of the raw meal used to produce clinker. However, calcined raw meal can be a poor CO2 sorbent due to the fact that the formation of Ca2SiO4 (belite) causes a reduction in the amount of free CaO. Effective reaction …

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Characterization of a Marl-Type Cement Raw Meal as CO2

The use of cement raw meals as sorbent precursors for CO2 capture can reinforce the synergies between the cement production process and calcium looping CO2 capture technology. In this work, we measure the CO2-carrying capacity of different calcined samples of a particular marl, which were obtained under very different calcination conditions and setups (a thermogravimetric …

Fracture energy evolution of two concretes resistant to the

of concrete subjected to the action of freeze-thaw cycles. This material property is highly significant, since the cracking and its evolution over time have a direct influence on the durability and the mechani-cal behaviour of concrete. Currently, assessment of durability of concrete . in freeze-thaw cycles is carried out by using two

Surface Scaling and Spalling of Concrete

In this article, two of the visual defects that might appear on concrete are discussed: Surface Scaling and Spalling of concrete. Surface Scaling of Concrete. Scaling is a form of disintegration and is due in most part to freeze – thaw reactions which cause the concrete to flake or peel off at the exposed surface.


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